Download Project on Cyclone (Doc Word File)A Project on Cyclone, With .Doc Microsoft Word File attached. It can be used by School Students for High School Classes.
Project Content Sample:
What are Cyclones?
A "Cyclonic Storm" or a "Cyclone" is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.
The word "Cyclone" is derived from the Greek, word "Cyclos" meaning the coils of a snake. To Henri Peddington, the tropical storms in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea appeared like the coiled serpents of the sea and he named these storms as "Cyclones".
Cyclones are intense low-pressure areas – from the center of which pressure increases outwards- The amount of the pressure drop in the centre and the rate at which it increases outwards gives the intensity of the cyclones and the strength of winds.
Types of Disturbances
Low Pressure Area………..Less than 17 knots ( < 31kmph)
Depression………………..17 to 27 knots ( 31 to 49 kmph)
Deep Depression………….28 to 33 knots ( 50 to 61 kmph)
Cyclonic Storm……………34 to 47 knots ( 62 to 88 kmph)
Severe Cyclonic Storm…….48 to 63 knots ( 89 to 118 kmph)
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm…64 to 119 knots ( 119 to 221 kmph)
Super Cyclonic Storm………120 knots and above ( 222 kmph and bove).
A full-grown cyclone is a violent whirl in the atmosphere 150 to 1000 km across, 10 to 15 km high. Gale winds of 150 to 250 km/h or more spiral around the center of very low pressure area with 30 to 100 hPa** below the normal sea level pressure. The central calm region of the storm is called the "Eye". The diameter of the eye varies between 30 and 50 km and is a region free of clouds and has light winds. Around this calm and clear eye, there is the "Wall Cloud Region" of the storm about 5O km in extent, where the gale winds, thick clouds with torrential rain, thunder and lightning prevail. Away from the "Wall Cloud Region", the wind speed gradually decreases. However, in severe cyclonic storms, wind speeds of 50 to 60 km/h can occur even at a distance of 600 km from the storm center. The gales give rise to a confused sea with waves as high as 20 meters, swells that travel a thousand miles. Torrential rains, occasional thunder and lightning flashes – join these under an overcast black canopy. Through these churned chaotic sea and atmosphere, the cyclone moves 300 to 500 km, in a day to hit or skirt along a coast, bringing with it storm surges as high as 3 to 12 meters, as if splashing a part of the sea sometimes up to 30 km inland leaving behind death and destructions.
Destruction caused by Cyclones
There are three elements associated with a cyclone, which cause destruction. They are explained in the following paragraphs:
1: Cyclones are associated with high-pressure gradients and consequent strong winds. These, in turn, generate storm surges. A storm surge is an abnormal rise of sea level near the coast caused by a severe tropical cyclone; as a result, sea water inundates low lying areas of coastal regions drowning human beings and live- stock, eroding beaches and embankments, destroying vegetation and reducing soil fertility.
2: Very strong winds may damage installations, dwellings, communication systems, trees., etc. resulting in loss of life and property.
3: Heavy and prolonged rains due to cyclones may cause river floods and submergence of low lying areas by rain causing loss of life and property. Floods and coastal inundation due to storm surges pollute drinking water sources causing outbreak of epidemics.
It may be mentioned that all the three factors mentioned above occur simultaneously and, therefore, relief operations for distress mitigation become difficult. So it is imperative that advance action is taken for relief measures before the commencement of adverse weather conditions due to cyclones.
The most destructive element associated with an intense cyclone is storm surge. Past history indicates that loss of life is significant when surge magnitude is 3 meters or more and catastrophic when 5 meters and above
How to avoid the Catastrophe?
One thinking is fighting the storm and to subdue its violence; the other thinking is to learn to live with it.
Effective Cyclone Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Plan requires:
A Cyclone Forecast – and Warning Service.
Rapid dissemination of warnings to the Government Agencies, Marine interests like the Ports, Fisheries and Shipping and to General Public.
Organizations to construct Cyclone Shelters in the cyclone-prone areas and ready machinery for evacuation of people to safer areas.
Community preparedness at all levels to meet the exigencies